Thursday, March 23, 2017

GlobalMedia: Development Communication (cont'd): Entertainment Education (W11-P1) Sp17


The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.




Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)



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Tuesday, March 21, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "All Night Long" album by Junior Kimbrough. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: All Night Long
By Junior Kimbrough
From the album All Night Long

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 21, 2017 at 06:41PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Friday, March 10, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "The Great Johnny Adams Blues Album" album by Johnny Adams. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Room With A View
By Johnny Adams
From the album The Great Johnny Adams Blues Album

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 10, 2017 at 09:39PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Wednesday, March 8, 2017

More Secrets of Academic Success: Mnemonics and How to Use Them - Sp17


Earlier I shared a variety of secrets to academic success (methods of studying, etc.) and I suggested learning tools like Quizlet.

Below is a continuation of that same conversation.

mnemonic is "any learning technique that aids in information retention" (Wikipedia).
Mnemonic is pronounced like 'knee-monic' (think: a demon with really big knee caps).

There are several mnemonics or memory tricks that can help when learning new material.  The first video below defines and explains six tricks (acronyms, acrostics, the PEG system, image mnemonics, chunking and memory maps).



So, according to the video:
  • acronyms: "word or term is created from the first letter of each item to be remembered."
  • acrostics: "a complete sentence or series of words in which the first letter of each word stands for something to be remembered."
  • PEG system: "is useful for remembering numbers - uses key words which are represented by numbers."
  • image mnemonics: "the information to be recalled is constructed in the form of a picture that enhances memory."
  • chunking: "involves grouping individual pieces of information together in a way that makes them easier to remember."
  • mind map: "a visual pattern that can create a framework for improved recall."

Now, the last video covers the memory palace technique (my favorite).



How could you use the above memory tricks to learn course material or anything else you need to learn?

Study smarter, not harder.

If you are curious, you can find more information about mnemonics on YouTube and Google.

I'd especially suggest these two YouTube videos:



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Friday, March 3, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Living With The Law" album by Chris Whitley. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Living with the Law
By Chris Whitley
From the album Living With The Law

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 3, 2017 at 07:18PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Thursday, March 2, 2017

GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Diffusion of Innovations (W8-P3) Sp17


Previously, development communication was defined as: "the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society."

Below is an example of a set of communication principles (or a theory) that has a long history of being applied to aid in development.

---

Everett Rogers
Diffusion of Innovations as an Approach to Development.

Everett Rogers wrote Diffusion of Innovations (1962, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2003).

What is an innovation?
  • An idea, object or practice...
  • Perceived as new...
  • By an individual or organization.


What is the diffusion of innovations?
  • An innovation ...
  • Communicated via channels...
  • Over time...
  • Among the members of a social system.




CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS
The characteristics (or attributes) of innovations, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their rate of adoption.  Characteristics of innovations are one important set of variables influencing the rate of adoption.

  1. Relative Advantage
    1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes
    2. e.g. economic profitability, decrease in discomfort, savings in time and effort, immediacy of reward
  2. Compatibility
    1. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
    2. Example: rap music and the role of MTV in making rap accessible and acceptable for all youth (Black & White).
  3. Complexity
    1. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
    2. Example: DOS vs. Windows
  4. Trialability
    1. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.
  5. Observability
    1. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
    2. Examples: solar panels & DBS, PrimeStar, DISH and the like

Given the above, how could diffusion of innovations (a communication theory) be used in development work?   How could diffusion of innovations be used to fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?  How could you use the characteristics of innovations to better fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?


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GlobalMedia: Development Communication: A History (Marshall Plan, etc.) (W8-P2) Sp17



"Uncle" Wilbur
A Historical Sketch of Development Communication

First a quick overview...

Dr. Wilbur Schramm
Founder of the social science study of communication (late 40s-50s) and key founder of development communication.
  • 1950s: 
    • Post-WWII & Cold War -- Newly independent nations struggling (the “terrible ascent”)
  • 1960s: 
    • Schramm: How to help them? His answer: w/ mass media - “the great multiplier.” Need to bring in mass media technology.
  • 1970s: 
    • Many countries implemented mass media programs.
  • 1980s: 
    • 1) Concern with “Neo-imperialism”
    • Hamid Mowlana
    • 2) Mowlana: users of mass media blind to the importance of traditional forms of communication in some societies/cultures. “Technology vs. Tradition” (Mowlana)
  • 1990s: 
    • Use of mass media to aid in development, but w/ caution regarding culture. Example: AIDS/HIV education in radio program in Tanzania & TV soap opera in China (Rogers)
  • 2000s: 
    • New issues and use of new communication technologies
(Sources: based on Mowlana, 1996, 1997, Stevenson, 1993, Rogers, 1997)



Now back to the 40s and 50s...

Coming out of World War II the U.S. was in good shape (economically, politically, etc.), but many of the nations of Europe faced problems.

To get a sense of the problem faces see CNN Perspectives Presents Cold War. (See also background info on this CNN series.)

Some of the series is available online.  As you watch the clips below pay close attention to the Marshall Plan.  What relationship does it have to development communication?

U.S. provided $$ and expertise in "reconstructing" Europe. U.S. foreign policy (lead by Truman) changed isolationism to “active leadership.” The U.S. offered the Marshall Plan* (more on Marshall Plan from CNN).

See the clips 0:00 to 1:50 and from about 20:30 to 28:00



Why should the U.S. help European countries after WWII?

  1. humanitarian concerns (White Man’s Burden again?)
  2. stop spread of communism!

Truman Doctrine: to defend freedom & democracy worldwide.

Edward T. Hall
After reconstructing Europe Truman offered the world “the benefits of our [U.S.] scientific advances and industrial progress… for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.”

This was called the Point Four Program. (Director, Edward Hall)
One of the key tasks taken on by Hall was teaching U.S. diplomats intercultural communication skills. The formal study of intercultural communication can be traced back to Hall and this program.  Hall has been called the founding father of intercultural communication study.

The government lacked knowledge on how to develop nations, so they turned to academia. Development theories were developed in economics, psychology, political science, sociology, and communication. For example, Wilbur Schramm offered his theory/approach to development.  By the mid-70s, development programs were recognized an ineffective. Schramm, Rogers and others recognized the faults.

Everett M. Rogers
What was wrong? According to Rogers (1976)
The old way of doing development programs had the following errors:

  1. They assume infinite economic growth, ignore problems like population growth, pollution, etc., and do not take into account the "quality of life."
  2. They emphasize technology and capital rather than labor, thus encouraging economic dependence on advanced countries. Low priority to agriculture.
  3. It blames the developing countries for their failings, ignoring external factors beyond their control.
  4. It takes an ethnocentric (Western) bias by emphasizing the modernization of "traditional" individuals.
(Sources: International Encyclopedia of Communication, "Development Communication," 1989; "Marshall Plan" Britannica Online.].).

NOTE: Three of the scholars mentioned above (Mowlana, Hall and Rogers) were professors of mine.  They are part of my intellectual family.  And, now you are part of this intellectual family too.  As for Schramm, it actually turns out that I might be biologically related to "Uncle Wilbur."  Born in the same small city, graduated from same undergrad college, same family tree roots, etc.


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GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Some Key Terms (W8-P1) Sp17




Define/explain the terms development, development communication and development journalism.


Development: "purposive changes undertaken in a society to achieve what may be regarded generally as a different ('improved') state of social and economic affairs"(Hern├índez-Ramos & Schramm, 1989).


Development projects typically focus on certain areas/issue of a society (e.g. agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, women's empowerment, etc.)

Development communication: the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society.


Development journalism: a 'branch' of development communication in which news media are used.
Journalism: "the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media"(M-W Dictionary)



If you had lots of money (through a grant, etc.) and you wanted to do good in the world, what would you do?  If you wanted to help with some health issue in another country, what would you do?
If you wanted to help and you wanted to put your media knowledge and media skills to use, what would you do?






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