Saturday, April 22, 2017

"Reflections" (New photo of mine on Flickr)



Title: "Reflections"
Photographer: William Hart, Ph.D.
http://bit.ly/1meoMVj
Description: "via Instagram bit.ly/2p3YoHE"
Taken: April 22, 2017 at 02:44PM
(C) William Hart






Thursday, April 20, 2017

GlobalMedia: Globalization: Is the World Flat? (W15-P3) [VID] Sp17





In 2005,  Thomas Friedman, a noted American journalist, wrote a book titled The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century.  There is a more recent edition The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

The book has had some influence.

What does Friedman mean when he says the world is flat?



What are the 3 eras of globalization according to Friedman?



How does this connect with our earlier coverage of globalization?


Is Friedman right?
Pankaj Ghemawat: Actually, the world isn't flat.


Key terms: globalizationsocial mediaanti-globalization movement,

What is globaloney?  How is Ghemawat using the term?
In the past this term referred to an unrealistic foreign policy or global outlook.  That fits Ghemawat's usage, but Ghemawat is more specific. How? See 'globaloney' definitions below.


























(Definition from The Oxford Dictionary of American Political Slang )



How does this connect with our earlier coverage of globalization?

If Ghemawat included data on film and television, what do you think he'd say?

If you are curious:
(1) "Why the World Isn't Flat" (in Foreign Policy) by Pankaj Ghemawat
(2) World 3.0: Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It by Ghemawat





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GlobalMedia: Social Media Important to Arab Spring Revolution? (W15-P2) [VID] Sp17



Other than helping individuals to communicate, what grander social role does the Internet play?


For example, the Internet can be used to speak to power and cause social change.  In the quote below McPhail notes the role blogs played in challenging power in 2002.

Quote originally taken from 2nd edition of Global Communication.


So, in the United States the Internet can be used to speak to power, but what about in other countries.  For the Internet to play a strong role, there would need to be a substantial amount of Internet users in a country.  What sort of growth is there for Internet use around the world?  According to McPhail (2nd edition),

Quote originally taken from 2nd edition of Global Communication.


The 3rd edition of McPhail has some interesting, updated numbers.  What changes do you note?
  1. China, 298 million
  2. U.S. 227 million
  3. Japan, 94 million
  4. India, 81 million
  5. Brazil, 68 million.
Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends
(For slightly more updated Internet use stats see this site, if you're curious.)

So, Internet use is certainly on the rise around the world, more so in some countries than in others.

------

On the world stage, the Internet, specifically social media, has been credited with building revolutions in countries and bringing down dictators.

Take for example, protests in the former-Soviet republic of Moldova in 2009.  It was called "Moldova’s Twitter Revolution."

More recently though, when one thinks of social media and revolution, one thinks of the Arab Spring.  The Arab Spring is "a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010."


A Map of Arab Spring Countries
(Image used under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0,  image created by Kwamikagami)
















Countries highlighted in black are countries in which the government was overthrown. From left to right the countries are Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Yemen. Countries highlighted in other colors are countries in which some protesting occurred.


For a sense of the role social media played in Tunisia, see the following news clip.



What exactly did social media do Tunisia?  What was the role of social media?

Let's move from a specific example to a broader discussion about the role of social media has played in the Arab Spring.  Some say that social media is insignificant and others say social media play a few important roles in revolution.  What are both sides of the argument and what are the arguments on both sides.  Why, for example, would some say "no, social media doesn't play a role"?  To help answer these questions see the Zuckerman video below.

See specifically the presentation from 4:45 to 8:45 and the remainder if interested.


Note: Zuckerman is co-founded international blogging community Global Voices. Check it out of you are interested.




If you're curious and want to learn more about social media and revolution, check out
Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People Is Greater Than the People in Power: A Memoir








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GlobalMedia: Internet Basics (W15-P1) [VID] Sp17



Some basics:

What is the Internet?



Think of the Internet as the hardware and the World Wide Web as the software that runs on the Internet.  The Web is not the hardware.  It is collection of interconnected web pages that exist on the Internet.

Now, how did the Internet evolve as a medium of communication from email in the late '60 and early '70s to the web-based communication tools that we have today?




Update to Zuckerman video:

If we can think of the 1990s as the decade of the World Wide Web (web pages, blogs, etc.), we can think of 2000-2010 as the decade of social media.  The decade got off to a slow start, but by...
  • 2004: Facebook founded.
  • 2005: YouTube founded. Note the strong social/sharing aspect of YT.
  • 2006: Twitter founded.
  • etc.

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Sunday, April 16, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Wish I Was in Heaven Sitting Down" album by R.L. Burnside. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Nothin’ Man
By R.L. Burnside
From the album Wish I Was in Heaven Sitting Down

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on April 16, 2017 at 09:36PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Thursday, April 6, 2017

GlobalMedia: International Public Relations: Case Study of U.S. Military Image in Afghanistan (W13-P4) [VID] Sp17



A case study is a method of teaching in which students are presented with a problematic scenario or case.  A case is an example or illustration of a problem or challenge.

Case studies are some times used in law classes and some times in public relations classes, for example.

After an international case is presented there is a common method used in PR courses.
  1. Define/describe the PR problem.
  2. Give ways for addressing or solving this problem.
  3. List resources needed for implementing solution(s).
  4. Give a timetable for implementation.
  5. State expected impact of solution.
  6. How did you use intercultural skills?

Intercultural skills to keep in mind when working through the international P.R. case
  • Be mindful
    • Be thoughtful, aware of differences
  • Be patience
    • It may be difficult at first
  • Be open-minded
    • Consider other ways of doing things, other views
  • Be tolerance of ambiguity
    • Things may not make sense. Be comfortable with uncertainty

Now, let's do a case or three.
Check out the following news videos about three back-to-back incidents between the U.S. military and the people of Afghanistan in early 2012.  As you are watching these, starting thinking about the above info.  What would you do to build a better relationship between the U.S. military and the people of Afghanistan?


Pentagon denounces Marine urination video (CBS Evening News - Jan. 2012)


Quran Burning Sparks Angry Afghan Protest (Associated Press - Feb. 2012)


Afghan Massacre: Video From Shooting Scene (ABC Evening News - Mar. 2012)



What would you do to build a better relationship between the U.S. military and the people of Afghanistan?



Also, now go through the method given above (i.e., 1. Define/describe the P.R. problem, etc.).  Also don't forget to think about how you'd use your intercultural skills in doing this P.R. work.



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GlobalMedia: Doing Some P.R. Work for the U.S. State Department (W13-P3) Sp17


Let's pretend that we are doing some public relations/advertising work for the U.S. State Department.  They want us to (1) promote a good image of the U.S. abroad and (2) promote tourism to the U.S.

What could we do?  How would we do that?

Where would we do that?  Let's say we focus on places where people first have contact with the U.S., in airports and in U.S embassies abroad.

As for the what, how about we put together a short video to be shown in the airports and embassies.

Think very carefully about what you would be in that video and why.

No, no.  Don't read on.  Seriously, think about what you'd put in the video and why.

O.K., now read on.
---

This above scenario actually played out few years back.  It actually happened.  Let's see how your ideas match up with those actually carried out.  Let's look at a series of videos.

A CNN News Report



The Actual Video Shown in Airports and Embassies
(See at least the first minute and the last minute to get a good feel for the video.)


The Making of the Portraits of America Video


Do you think this "Portraits of America" video was effective, based upon what you've see above?


Would you have done anything differently?

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GlobalMedia: International Advertising & Public Relations: Campaigns & Culture (W13-P2) Sp17


A campaign is “an operation or series of operations energetically pursued to accomplish a purpose: an advertising campaign for a new product; a candidate's political campaign” (American Heritage Dictionary)

An advertising campaign for a certain new product could contain a "series of operations" like
  • putting out press releases to the news media,
  • putting ads in newspapers and
  • posting a viral video on YouTube about the new product.

The purpose of all these "operations" is to encourage purchase of the product.

Now, what about going global?


According to McPhail,
"There are three strategic models for planning global campaigns: standardized, adaptive, and country-specific.  In the standardized model, strategy is formed at the global headquarters and implemented in all operating areas [same or very similar in all countries].  In the adaptive model, a basic strategy [given from head-quarters] is adapted appropriately for each country where it will be implemented.  In a country-specific model, the strategic planning is shaped to fit one country [,more grass-roots]" (Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends)


Let's say we are doing advertising for the multinational corporation, McDonald's.  As part of the campaign that we are managing, they want 30 second TV ads for their new salads.  They want to sell salads (or localized versions of salads) around the world in many different countries.  Using each of the above models, how would this be done?  See any benefits or drawbacks to each approach?  What about in terms of costs and effectiveness?



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GlobalMedia: International Advertising & PR (W13-P1) Sp17


Advertising and public relations are playing an increasing role in international communication.  They've certainly gone global.

Let's start with some basic dictionary definitions.

Advertising: “The activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media” (The American Heritage Dictionary).

Public Relations (P.R.): “The methods and activities employed to establish and promote a favorable relationship with the public” (The American Heritage Dictionary).

The basic dictionary definitions need a little modifying.
  • Add to the advertising definition, the key purpose of advertising: to persuade people to purchase.  "Attraction public attention" is a good first step, but not the ultimate goal.
  • Add to the P.R. definition, the idea of establishing, promoting and maintaining a relationship.  Secondly, add an "s" to the end of public.  What are the key publics that a company needs to have a good relationship with?  Externally: the government/law makers, other companies, customers, the media, etc. Internally: investors, employees, etc.
If you are curious, checkout some more online definitions of advertising and public relations.


With some basics out of the way, let's go global with advertising and P.R.


In his book, Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends, Thomas McPhail offers three key reasons why there has been a growth in international advertising and P.R.  Why has advertising and public relations gone global?

"1. Corporations themselves are going increasingly global and taking their advertising agencies with them.  This includes communication corporations as well as other sectors such as transportation, food, beverages, natural resources, credit cards, etc.
2. As multimedia outlets -- from privatized radio and television networks in Europe to new media and print outlets in Latin America -- expand, they require successful advertising campaigns in order to generate the revenues and attract new customers necessary to succeed as viable commercial enterprises.
3. The growth of satellite-delivered broadcasting channels, along with a rapid expansion of cable systems and networks, have in turn generated demand for increased use of advertising agencies in order to develop a sufficient customer base for either the new services themselves, or the problems they advertise."

Note that the first reason focuses on general companies, the second reason focuses on media companies that provide content and the third reason focuses on the media hardware companies.


In their book, Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (4th Edition), de Beer and Merrill offer their own explanation for the expansion of international advertising and public relations.

Why the expansion?

  • Financial businesses, etc.
    • Economically connected
    • In short, business is global
  • Issues management & crisis management
    • Crises spread quickly on the ‘Net nowadays.
    • Some crises, like environmental and financial crises, easily cross borders.
    • In short, many issues/crises are global

In short, P.R. and advertising have to go global.


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Friday, March 24, 2017

GlobalMedia: International Journalism: Being a Journalist in a Foreign Place (W12-P3) Sp17



Imagine being a journalist in a far off land.

Wouldn't be easy, would it?

First, you may, depending on where you are and what you are covering, be physically harmed or killed.  See Anderson Cooper clip below, for just one example.  




And, if you are curious, check out some recent news about about foreign journalists being hurt or killed in the past year month.


It is also not easy being a foreign journalist because you may misread/misunderstand what you are covering in that foreign land.  It is a challenge.




P. Eric Louw, in his chapter "Journalist Reporting from Foreign Places" in Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (4th Edition), writes about the challenges of being a foreign journalist.






Thesis of chapter:
  • “Journalist coverage of foreign places increasingly influences the governance of those places.” (e.g., CNN effect.)
  • “The emergence of international governance based on foreign news-driven mediated realities has inherent dangers."

“Double Misreadings”?
  • “Relying on the news media to understand distant places inherently produces a double misreading because…”
    • Journalist can misread the news event and
    • We (the audience) can misread what the journalist is saying.
  • “journalists generally are not equipped to read distant contexts, and neither are their audiences."


Journalist misread for several reasons.
  1. “First, journalists arriving in a new context are foreigners [who don’t know the history, the religions, etc.]
  2. “Misreadings also occur because journalists carry their cultural biases with them when reporting in a foreign context.”
    1. e.g. American values/ways of doing things being seen as normal. Seeing foreign ways as “incomprehensible” or “despicable”.
  3. “…the journalistic practice of deploying simplistic labels.” 
    1. Taking a complex, sometimes chaotic situation/place and putting into 20 words or less and putting it in a way that U.S. audience will relate to.  “ethnic cleansing” label “white supremacy” label used in coverage of S.A.
  4. “…journalists routinely use binary oppositions when describing foreign contexts”   Related to #3  
    1. Common characters in a news story: “good guys” vs. “bad guys” Other characters?  Common plot?  Again, oversimplification.
  5. “…when sent to report on foreign contexts, journalists tend to (subconsciously) select contacts with whom they feel comfortable working…”
  6. “…foreign issues are read in terms of ‘home’ understandings and agendas.” 
    1. e.g., S.A. anti-apartheid struggle = U.S. civil rights struggle.  Similar to # 3


What if we took these ways of misreading and applied them to Andersen Cooper's work?
Any misreading in his reporting?




Video comes from the DVD which accompanies Cooper's book Dispatches from the Edge: A Memoir of War, Disasters, and Survival,



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GlobalMedia: International Journalism: The CNN Effect & the Social Media Effect [VID] (W12-P2) Sp17


In his book, Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends, Thomas McPhail defines the CNN effect as "the process by which the coverage of a foreign event by CNN causes that event to be a primary concern for its audience, which in turn forces the federal government to act."  One could add to the U.S. government, then as part of its foreign policy, may influence foreign governments/peoples through direct action (e.g., war) or through sanctions.  See video clip below.



Does CNN still have this influence on foreign policy?  Any other news networks, U.S. or otherwise, have this influence?  Any other form of media now has this influence?  Think: Arab Spring (see first 2 minutes).  Think: Kony2012 (see short clip).  What role does social media play in shaping foreign policy?  How's that process work?

The "social media effect" is defined here as the process by which the coverage of an event on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube  etc. causes that event to be a primary concern for its audiences around the world, which in turn forces foreign governments to act, thus further influencing the event.

See clip below for more the idea of social media effect.






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GlobalMedia: International Journalism: North Korea & Theories of the Press (W12-P1) Sp17

North Korea: An Example

What type of press system does North Korea have?  See What is the North Korean media like?




What are the different types of press systems around the world?


In the late 1950s Siebert, Peterson and Schramm (aka Uncle Wilbur) identified four types of press systems that existed in countries up until the 1950s.

They published their findings in their book titled Four Theories of the Press: The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility and Soviet Communist Concepts of What the Press Should Be and Do (Illini Books)

In the book they highlight the relationship between the form of government that a nation has and the press that operates within it.



The four theories:

  1. Authoritarian
    1. Purpose of the Press: To serve and promote the government/rulers
    2. Ownership of Press: private or public
    3. Notes/Examples: England/Western European countries 19th century and before; Afghanistan under the Taliban
  2. Soviet-Communist
    1. Purpose of the Press: To serve and promote the government or the Communist party
    2. Ownership of Press: public
    3. Notes/Examples: Soviet Union and other communist countries
  3. Libertarian
    1. Purpose of the Press: To inform (i.e., present the facts) and monitor the government
    2. Ownership of Press: Mostly private
    3. Notes/Examples: England
  4. Social Responsibility
    1. Purpose: To monitor the government.  While another purpose is to inform (i.e., present the facts to) the citizens, this press system goes beyond just presenting the facts to promoting understanding and discussion/debate related to those facts.  
    2. Ownership of Press: Private
    3. Notes/Examples: U.S., Canada

What would it be like being a journalism student or a journalist working in these different press systems?

Do you think that these four theories still adequately describe the types of press systems that operate in the countries of today?  Does, for example, the introduction of social media, require modifications to the four theories?

The work of Siebert, Peterson and Schramm has received criticism and updating.  If you are interested, see for example the following books.


Last Rights: Revisting Four Theories of the Press (History of Communication)

Normative Theories of the Media: Journalism in Democratic Societies (History of Communication)




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Thursday, March 23, 2017

GlobalMedia: Development Communication (cont'd): Entertainment Education (W11-P1) Sp17


The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.




Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)



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Tuesday, March 21, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "All Night Long" album by Junior Kimbrough. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: All Night Long
By Junior Kimbrough
From the album All Night Long

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 21, 2017 at 06:41PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Friday, March 10, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "The Great Johnny Adams Blues Album" album by Johnny Adams. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Room With A View
By Johnny Adams
From the album The Great Johnny Adams Blues Album

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 10, 2017 at 09:39PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Wednesday, March 8, 2017

More Secrets of Academic Success: Mnemonics and How to Use Them - Sp17


Earlier I shared a variety of secrets to academic success (methods of studying, etc.) and I suggested learning tools like Quizlet.

Below is a continuation of that same conversation.

mnemonic is "any learning technique that aids in information retention" (Wikipedia).
Mnemonic is pronounced like 'knee-monic' (think: a demon with really big knee caps).

There are several mnemonics or memory tricks that can help when learning new material.  The first video below defines and explains six tricks (acronyms, acrostics, the PEG system, image mnemonics, chunking and memory maps).



So, according to the video:
  • acronyms: "word or term is created from the first letter of each item to be remembered."
  • acrostics: "a complete sentence or series of words in which the first letter of each word stands for something to be remembered."
  • PEG system: "is useful for remembering numbers - uses key words which are represented by numbers."
  • image mnemonics: "the information to be recalled is constructed in the form of a picture that enhances memory."
  • chunking: "involves grouping individual pieces of information together in a way that makes them easier to remember."
  • mind map: "a visual pattern that can create a framework for improved recall."

Now, the last video covers the memory palace technique (my favorite).



How could you use the above memory tricks to learn course material or anything else you need to learn?

Study smarter, not harder.

If you are curious, you can find more information about mnemonics on YouTube and Google.

I'd especially suggest these two YouTube videos:



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Friday, March 3, 2017

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Living With The Law" album by Chris Whitley. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Living with the Law
By Chris Whitley
From the album Living With The Law

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on March 3, 2017 at 07:18PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Thursday, March 2, 2017

GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Diffusion of Innovations (W8-P3) Sp17


Previously, development communication was defined as: "the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society."

Below is an example of a set of communication principles (or a theory) that has a long history of being applied to aid in development.

---

Everett Rogers
Diffusion of Innovations as an Approach to Development.

Everett Rogers wrote Diffusion of Innovations (1962, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2003).

What is an innovation?
  • An idea, object or practice...
  • Perceived as new...
  • By an individual or organization.


What is the diffusion of innovations?
  • An innovation ...
  • Communicated via channels...
  • Over time...
  • Among the members of a social system.




CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS
The characteristics (or attributes) of innovations, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their rate of adoption.  Characteristics of innovations are one important set of variables influencing the rate of adoption.

  1. Relative Advantage
    1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes
    2. e.g. economic profitability, decrease in discomfort, savings in time and effort, immediacy of reward
  2. Compatibility
    1. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
    2. Example: rap music and the role of MTV in making rap accessible and acceptable for all youth (Black & White).
  3. Complexity
    1. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
    2. Example: DOS vs. Windows
  4. Trialability
    1. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.
  5. Observability
    1. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
    2. Examples: solar panels & DBS, PrimeStar, DISH and the like

Given the above, how could diffusion of innovations (a communication theory) be used in development work?   How could diffusion of innovations be used to fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?  How could you use the characteristics of innovations to better fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?


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