Monday, December 26, 2016

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Bluesbreakers With Eric Clapton - Deluxe Edition" album by John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Telephone Blues
By John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers
From the album Bluesbreakers With Eric Clapton - Deluxe Edition

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on December 26, 2016 at 04:42PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Friday, December 23, 2016

MyFavMusic: HIDEAWAY (1966) by John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers-...



HIDEAWAY (1966) by John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers- featuring Eric Clapton



My musical interests on Tumblr






MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Bluesbreakers With Eric Clapton - Deluxe Edition" album by John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Hideaway
By John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers
From the album Bluesbreakers With Eric Clapton - Deluxe Edition

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on December 23, 2016 at 05:10PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Thursday, December 1, 2016

MassMedia: International Journalism: The CNN Effect & the Social Media Effect [VID] (W15-P6) Fa16



In his book, Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends, Thomas McPhail defines the CNN effect as "the process by which the coverage of a foreign event by CNN causes that event to be a primary concern for its audience, which in turn forces the federal government to act."  One could add to the U.S. government, then as part of its foreign policy, may influence foreign governments/peoples through direct action (e.g., war) or through sanctions.  See video clip below.



Does CNN still have this influence on foreign policy?  Any other news networks, U.S. or otherwise, have this influence?  Any other form of media now has this influence?  Think: Arab Spring (see first 2 minutes).  Think: Kony2012 (see short clip).  What role does social media play in shaping foreign policy?  How's that process work?

The "social media effect" is defined here as the process by which the coverage of an event on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube  etc. causes that event to be a primary concern for its audiences around the world, which in turn forces foreign governments to act, thus further influencing the event.

See clip below for more the idea of social media effect.






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MassMedia: Development Communication (cont'd): Entertainment Education (W15-P5) Fa16


The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.




Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)



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MassMedia: Development Communication: "The Ugly American" (W15-P4) [VID] Fa16


When an U.S. American enters another country as a development worker, tourist, etc., they should be conscious and cautious of the "Ugly American" concept.

Counterproductive attitudes that Americans can have about people from other countries?*
  • "Foreigners coming to live in the U.S. should adapt American ways."
  • "Asians do many things backwards."
  • "Much of the world’s population remains underdeveloped because they don’t take the initiative to develop themselves."
  • "Americans have been very generous in teaching other people how to do things the right way."
  • "English should be accepted as the universal language."

Q: Central theme in the counterproductive attitudes expressed above?
A: Ethnocentrism: a belief that your group's ways are the best ways.

Imagine a person working in development communication who heads into a development project abroad with the above attitudes. How would things work out?



The phrase "ugly American" comes, in part, from a 1958 novel about an American who travels abroad and expresses an ethnocentric attitude.  The novel was made into a 1963 film staring Marlon Brando.




Now to another film.  How does Disney's Pocahontas fit into this discussion?

Do you spot the ethnocentric attitude from John Smith in this Pocahontas clip?
(If the video clip does not work, then the Disney's Pocahontas film can be found on sites like Netflix.  If you find the full film see the segment from about 35:45 to about 40:00.)



Given the similarity between Pocahontas and Avatar (see below), then you might explore the "ugly Earthling" aspects of Avatar.  Can you think of other related films?




* Of course, this could go the other way. People in other countries can have ethnocentric views toward the U.S. --  The ugly _____.


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MassMedia: Development Communication: Some Key Terms (W15-P3) Fa16



Define/explain the terms development, development communication and development journalism.


Development: "purposive changes undertaken in a society to achieve what may be regarded generally as a different ('improved') state of social and economic affairs"(Hern√°ndez-Ramos & Schramm, 1989).


Development projects typically focus on certain areas/issue of a society (e.g. agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, women's empowerment, etc.

Development communication: the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society.


Development journalism: a 'branch' of development communication in which news media are used.
Journalism: "the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media"(M-W Dictionary)



If you had lots of money (through a grant, etc.) and you wanted to do good in the world, what would you do?  If you wanted to help with some health issue in another country, what would you do?
If you wanted to help and you wanted to put your media knowledge and media skills to use, what would you do?



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MassMedia: Media Imperialism & the Mindset of "The Burden" (W15-P2) Fa16


Media Imperialism (Anglo-American Dominance)

Imperialism: “the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online)

Imperialism is justified under “the White Man’s Burden” views. (See 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling entitled “White Man’s Burden”)

Part of Poem:

"Take up the White Man's burden‑‑
        Send forth the best ye breed‑‑
Go, bind your sons to exile
        To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
       On fluttered folk and wild‑‑
Your new‑caught sullen peoples,
       Half devil and half child."

This is an example of the imperialistic mindset.

This cartoon from 1903 is a follow-up to the poem and the imperialistic, racist mindset.



















To where is the "native" being taken?  For what purpose?

And now...
Media Imperialism: “the imbalance and inequality in flow of mass media materials between developed and developing countries, and its subsequent effect on the developing country’s society and culture”(Araby in Frederick,1994).

Can you develop another definition related more to the definition of imperialism above?

Western (American) Media Imperialism.
Q: What American values can be found in its media products?
A: Individualism, materialism, adventurism, etc.



Effects of Media Imperialism?

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MassMedia: What is International Communication? (W15-P1) Fa16




There are activities (things that happen in the world) and there are fields of academic study.

International communication can be seen as both an activity and a field of study.

International Communication (as an activity): “simply defined, is communication that occurs across international borders, that is, over the borders of nation-states”(Fortner).

International Communication (as an area of study): “a field of inquiry and research that consists of the transfer of values, attitudes, opinions, and information through individuals, groups, governments, and technologies, as well as the study of the structure of institutions responsible for promoting or inhibiting such messages among and between nations and cultures”(Mowlana).

International communication can be seen as an interdiscipline.

Interdiscipline: "a field of scholars who identify with various disciplines but share a common interest in a theme that crosses traditional [academic] boundaries“ (Littlejohn).

Disciplines which study international communication: international relations, political science, communication, sociology, anthropology, electronic communication, etc.

Who is involved in international communication?   State actors and and non-state actors.

State actors are governments, i.e. states, nations.

Types and examples of “non-state actors”
  • Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
    • Examples
      • Microsoft
      • Coca-Cola
      • CNN
  • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)

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Wednesday, November 30, 2016

MediaTech: The Evolution of MediaTech: The Third Screen (W15-P5) Fa16



So, according the previous post, technologies evolve.  New ones are created and some old ones go extinct.  Or do they go extinct?


Focusing specifically on media technologies, what new media tech has evolved recently?  Is there a new species of media tech?  It could be argued that "the third screen" is a new species.  Martin writes about it in his book, The Third Screen: Marketing to Your Customers in a World Gone Mobile.   What is the third screen and how has it evolved?  And, what does it have to do with your future?  What do you see evolving in the future?  Do you see a fourth screen?  No screen? What is the connection between your future and the future of media tech?




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MediaTech: The Evolution of MediaTech: Memes and Temes (W15-P4) Fa16


Now take those basic ideas of biological evolution and see how they apply it specifically to technological evolution.  What do Kelly and Blackmore add to this theoretical perspective?

First, "Kevin Kelly on how technology evolves"
(You may want to start the Kelly video at about 8:20.)



 Second, "Susan Blackmore on memes and 'temes'"





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MediaTech: The Evolution of MediaTech: Genes (W15-P3) Fa16



Previous posts have offered theories for how technologies come to be and develop over time.  We've discussed, for example, Winston's model and we've discussed the Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations.  We now turn to our last theory -- technological evolution.


This theory is based on the biological theory of evolution.  One of the best explanations of biological evolution and the mechanism that drives evolution is found in Carl Sagan's Cosmos video series which was based on the book Cosmos. In the following video Sagan describes the process of artificial selection.  As you are watching this clip from Cosmos, be sure to identify and be able to explain the mechanism that drives evolution. Does this mechanism explain technological evolution?  Do technologies evolve?

Let's start first in Japan some time ago and the story of a drowned boy-emperor, a small crab and the idea of artificial selection.








Let's look at evolution in another way, noting especially the steps in the process.

Evolution is a process.  What are the steps in the process?

In this short clip the process is explained in a different way. Slow the process down and catch each step. It starts with organisms vary.



Now, instead of rabbits, what if we were talking about mobile phones or any other media technology?


Would the process be similar?  How so?

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MediaTech: Connection - Past & Future: Mr. Burke & His Connections Approach (W15-P2) Fa16




Recall...
Burke's approach most relates to the last reason.


To best get a sense of Burke's approach to technological development, it would be helpful to see an example.  In an episode of his 1970s TV series Connections he traced the development of TV and film back to the cannonball.

What does a cannonball have to do with TV and film?


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MediaTech: Connection - Past & Future: Previous Theories (W15-P1) Fa16



Time to add another theory to our understanding of how technologies develop.
Enter Mr. Burke.
Don't forget The Evolution of Technology discussed recently.

But first, a quick review.





Also add to this list "technology evolution" to be covered after Burke's approach.


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Monday, November 28, 2016

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Lucille" album by B.B. King. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Lucille
By B.B. King
From the album Lucille

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on November 28, 2016 at 02:41PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Live At The Regal" album by B.B. King. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Sweet Little Angel - Live At The Regal Theater/1964
By B.B. King
From the album Live At The Regal

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on November 28, 2016 at 02:38PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Tuesday, November 22, 2016

InterculturalCom: Culture Shock: The W-Curve (W13-P3) Fa16


The cultural adjustment is not finished once an individual leaves a new cultural environment.  Depending on the degree to which the new cultural environment has effected the individual, the individual may have to readjust to their home environment.  The overall process is not just the U-shaped curve seen in a previous post, but more a W-shaped curve showing the return and adjustment at home.

Ever traveled into a new culture, spent some time there, and then returned home and had to readjust?  Can you ever go home again?  Can you step in the same river twice?






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InterculturalCom: Culture Shock: What is Culture Shock? (W14-P2) Fa16


When an individual enters a new cultural environment they may "suffer" to some degree culture shock.

Is it helpful to think of culture shock as a "disease" or to see it in a more positive light as a growth phase? 

Have you experienced culture shock?







This is a clip that I edited and posted on YouTube. I use this clip in my Intercultural Communication course to introduce students to culture shock. 

What is culture shock?
What are the "symptoms" of culture shock?
How do you lessen culture shock?  What is active and passive coping?

The instructional video that this clip comes from appears to be no longer available for purchase.  If you can find a copy available in a library, I'd recommend it.  Berry's comments are especially insightful.  The video was titled "World Within Reach."


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InterculturalCom: Culture Shock: Process of Cultural Adjustment (W14-P1) Fa16


As an individual moves into a new cultural environment (a new country, a new city, a new school, etc.), depending on the degree of cultural difference, the individual generally goes through certain stages.



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Monday, November 21, 2016

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Two Steps From The Blues" album by Bobby "Blue" Bland. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Two Steps From The Blues
By Bobby “Blue” Bland
From the album Two Steps From The Blues

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on November 21, 2016 at 06:35PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Thursday, November 17, 2016

MassMedia: Social Media and Web 2.0: Facebook and the Zuckerberg Story (W13-P2) Fa16


How did Facebook come to be? What is Mark Zuckerberg's story?
Fact and Fiction

You might know some of the story from the 2010 film, The Social Network.



However, is the film based on the fact?  What does Zuckerberg object to?



If you are curious, you might also want to check out a recent article "Zuckerberg reveals he found The Social Network 'hurtful'."

A documentary or news story would be a better way of getting to the true story.



If you are curious, you might also want to check out a full bio on Bloomberg's Game Changers series.

How is his story similar to past media tech visionaries?

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MassMedia: Social Media and Web 2.0: Intro (W13-P1) Fa16


What makes Facebook or Twitter examples of social media? Is YouTube social media? 
What is social media?  

"Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as 'a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.'" (Wikipedia).

So, Web 2.0 has something to do with social media. What is Web 2.0?

"The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design,[1] and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies" (Wikipedia)

So, if this is Web 2.0, what was Web 1.0?


When did the Internet and the Web begin as communication tools?

Today we certainly use social media (e.g. Facebook and Snapchat) as a means of communicating with our family, friends and colleagues, however, wasn't the Internet used a communication tool before the advent of social media?

Starting with the late 1960s, what new communication tools appeared on the Internet?  Examples: What year did email first appear?  What year did blogs appear?

Ethan Zuckerman gives a good timeline (or list) in his brief talk below.  If curious, see more about Zuckerman and his latest book.



What would you add to this timeline for more recent years?

Let's update Zuckerman a little.

How did social media develop/evolve?  What is the short history of social media?
See the evolution of social media for the rest of the timeline.

If curious, also see the video below.






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Wednesday, November 16, 2016

MediaTech: Social Media and Web 2.0: Facebook and the Zuckerberg Story (W13-P3) Fa16


How did Facebook come to be? What is Mark Zuckerberg's story?
Fact and Fiction

You might know some of the story from the 2010 film, The Social Network.



However, is the film based on the fact?  What does Zuckerberg object to?



If you are curious, you might also want to check out a recent article "Zuckerberg reveals he found The Social Network 'hurtful'."

A documentary or news story would be a better way of getting to the true story.



If you are curious, you might also want to check out a full bio on Bloomberg's Game Changers series.

How is his story similar to past media tech visionaries?


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MediaTech: Social Media and Web 2.0: Intro (W13-P2) Fa16


What makes Facebook or Twitter examples of social media? Is YouTube social media? 
What is social media?  

"Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as 'a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.'" (Wikipedia).

So, Web 2.0 has something to do with social media. What is Web 2.0?

"The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design,[1] and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies" (Wikipedia)

So, if this is Web 2.0, what was Web 1.0?

How did social media develop/evolve?  What is the short history of social media?





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MediaTech: Social Media and Web 2.0: Diffusion and Innovations (W13-P1) Fa16



Previously we have noted that when a person or a society adopts an innovations, there are consequences. What are some consequences of adopting social media based on recent research?




Now, let's shift gears, but stay with diffusion of innovations and social media.  The adoption of social media has greatly increased in the past decade or so.  People have adopted social media more quickly than any other past media technology (radio, TV, etc.).  Why?   What makes an innovation spread?  What makes the rate of adoption increase?  What are the key factors according to diffusion of innovation theory?  What are the characteristics (or attributes) of an innovation that makes it quickly become adopted?  


Specifically, what are the attributes of the innovation that make it spread?
























How do these attributes of an innovation apply to the diffusion of social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc.?

---

The above diffusion of innovations concepts has been previously covered.  Now, let's introduce a new diffusion of innovation concept, adopter categories.  We'll then apply this new concept to your adoption of social media.

According to Rogers, there are five categories of adopters, five type of people who adopt an innovation.


  1. Innovators - "Innovators are willing to take risks, have the highest social status, have financial liquidity, are social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Their risk tolerance allows them to adopt technologies that may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures."
  2. Early adopters - "These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the adopter categories. Early adopters have a higher social status, financial liquidity, advanced education and are more socially forward than late adopters. They are more discreet in adoption choices than innovators. They use judicious choice of adoption to help them maintain a central communication position."
  3. Early Majority - "They adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time that is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority have above average social status, contact with early adopters and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system (Rogers 1962, p. 283)"
  4. Late Majority  - They adopt an innovation after the average participant. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, little financial liquidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority and little opinion leadership.
  5. Laggards - They are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents. Laggards typically tend to be focused on "traditions", lowest social status, lowest financial liquidity, oldest among adopters, and in contact with only family and close friends." (Wikipedia)


When it comes to your adoption of social media, which category did you fall into?


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Tuesday, November 15, 2016

InterculturalCom: Intercultural Sensitivity and Competence: Intercultural Training - Part 2 (W13-Activity) Fa16


Some well-known intercultural training activities include "The Parable" and "Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes".

"The Parable"

The study of intercultural communication has a rich and interesting history.  That's one of the reasons that I study it. There is a long history of government organizations training people to be better intercultural communicators (e.g., diplomats).  Out of this training comes some helpful and long-lasting intercultural training exercises.  "The Parable" is one of those exercises.  Below is the parable as it appeared in a 1973 Unesco document (pdf).  Read the story and then rank in order that characters that you most approve of.  The person that you approve of at the top and the bottom would be the person that you least approve of.



If you are curious, see also Dr. Ting-Toomey's version of The Parable.

Dr. Hart's classroom instructions:

  • Write down on a piece of paper, in rank order, the characters whose behaviors you most approve.
  • Break into groups of 4 to discuss your results.  Create a rank list for the group.
  • What have you learned as a result of this activity?
  • Can anyone point to something in your past that shaped the values you used in this activity?  Who/what programmed you?
  • Value: “A principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable” (TheFreeDictionary.com).

If you are curious: More related activities from CSU Fullerton faculty (pdf).



"Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes"

Another famous intercultural training activity was created by Jane Elliot.  What are the steps in Jane Elliot's Blue Eyes / Brown Eyes Experiment?



This is a clip that I edited and posted on YouTube. I use this clip in my Intercultural Communication course to introduce students to methods of using intercultural training to reduce prejudice. 

How effective do you think this method is?
Any ethical concerns?

Additional intercultural training activities may be covered in future posts.


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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Sensitivity and Competence: Intercultural Training - Part 1 (W13-Activity) Fa16


Research on the best methods of teaching and training in intercultural communication has a long history beginning with the work of anthropologist around the time of World War II. By the 1970s anthropologist lost interest in intercultural interactions and communication scholars carried on the study of intercultural communication. Two of these communication scholars (Gudykunst and Hammer) are among the top prolific authors and most cited authors in the field of intercultural communication (Hammer was my advisor at American University). In one of the articles written by Gudykunst and Hammer they outlined the overall goals of intercultural education or intercultural training (ICT).


  • "...most ICT involves some form of change in three areas: cognition, affect, and behavior. Cognitively, ICT generally is aimed at helping trainees understand how their culture, stereotypes, and attitudes influence their interactions with members of other cultures. Cognitive ICT goals, therefore, focus on knowledge and/or awareness. Affectively, ICT generally is aimed at helping trainees effectively manage their emotional reactions (e.g., anxiety) when interacting with members of other cultures. Behaviorally, ICT generally is designed to help trainees develop the skills they need to interact effectively with members of other cultures" (Gudykunst, Guzley and Hammer, 1996, p. 65).


In this course we will work on these three goals: cognition, affect and behavior.


Let's explore some types of intercultural training and well-known intercultural training activities.

First, film may be used in intercultural training.  A fictional film which shows intercultural interaction may teach a viewer some facts about another culture and, depending on how well the viewer identifies with the characters in the film, it may also have an emotional or affective effect.



Mr. Nice GuyThis is a clip that I edited and posted on YouTube. I use this clip in my Intercultural Communication course to introduce students to the difficulties of intercultural communication.

In the clip Jackie's fiancé has just arrived in the U.S.

Is there intercultural miscommunication? What is the problem exactly? Whose fault is it? Is it right to blame somebody?


Some additional types of intercultural training and well-known intercultural training activities will be explored in future posts.


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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Sensitivity and Competence: Principled Negotiation (W13-P4) Fa16


What is principled negotiation and what does it have to do with intercultural conflict?







William Ury: The walk from "no" to "yes"


What does principled negotiation have to do with intercultural conflict?


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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Sensitivity and Competence: Intercultural Conflict (W13-P3) Fa16



Intercultural Competency: Managing Intercultural Conflict

Culture can enter conflict in a variety of places as shown in the diagram below.





Now, let's shift gears and look at conflict in a different way, by using a film clip.

This is a clip that I edited and posted on YouTube. I use this clip in my Intercultural Communication course to introduce students to the concept of intercultural competence, especially in conflict situations.

The film clip wasn't about intercultural conflict, but how could you use Nash's idea to resolve intercultural conflict?



The film is based on a true story.
Background: JOHN NASH, Princeton math prof., played key role in game theory,
Game theory had important impacts on scholarly thinking in economics, international relations, biology, etc.
So, important, Nash won 1994 Nobel Prize




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See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.