There are activities (things that happen in the world) and there are fields of academic study.
International communication can be seen as both an activity and a field of study.
International Communication (as an activity): “simply defined, is communication that occurs across international borders, that is, over the borders of nation-states”(Fortner).
International Communication (as an area of study): “a field of inquiry and research that consists of the transfer of values, attitudes, opinions, and information through individuals, groups, governments, and technologies, as well as the study of the structure of institutions responsible for promoting or inhibiting such messages among and between nations and cultures”(Mowlana).
International communication can be seen as an interdiscipline.
Interdiscipline: "a field of scholars who identify with various disciplines but share a common interest in a theme that crosses traditional [academic] boundaries“ (Littlejohn).
Disciplines which study international communication: international relations, political science, communication, sociology, anthropology, electronic communication, etc.
State actors are governments, i.e. states, nations.
Types and examples of “non-state actors”
- Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
- Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
- private interest groups
- Grameen Bank
- Greenpeace International
- (See Union of International Associations (UIA) - 44,000+ NGOs listed)
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