Geert Hofstede during the 1980s surveyed over 100,000 workers in multinational corporations in forty countries.
He found 4 main dimensions along which countries/cultures differ. Each country was ranked according to his dimensions.
- 1. Individualism - Collectivism
- I versus We
- e.g., “Squeaking wheel gets the greasy.”
- e.g., “The nail that sticks up gets pounded down.”
- Indiv. (e.g., U.S. & Australia) <--------> Coll (e.g., Taiwan & Peru)
- 2. Uncertainty Avoidance
- The extent to which a culture feels threatened by the unknown.
- Hi-U.A. cultures try to avoid uncertainty.
- Hi UA (e.g., Greece & Japan) <---> Low UA (e.g. U.S. & Denmark )
- 3. Power Distance
- The extent to which a culture accepts inequality.
- Hi-P.D. cultures accept inequality in relationships.
- Hi PD (e.g. Philippines & India) <----> Low PD (e.g. Sweden & N.Z.)
- 4. Masculinity and Femininity
- Masculinity = assertiveness, ambition, possessions...
- Femininity = caring and nurturing...
- M (e.g., Japan & Italy) <-----------> F (e.g., Norway & Denmark)
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